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A Complete Guide To Corrosion Protection And Control

Corrosion of metals can occur either in the form of rust or cracks. It can affect a specific part or the entire metal surface of a tool or equipment. Corrosion occurs when solid metals deteriorate due to a chemical reaction. On some metal surfaces, corrosion is not easily visible and cannot be detected by the human eye. When metals go under the process of corrosion, they tend to deform and deteriorate. In simple words, corrosion occurs when a metal is chemically changed into its stable form.

The most common form of corrosion is probably rust and galvanic corrosion. Corrosion can affect the operations of businesses that use heavy metal tools and machinery. Also, many automobile manufacturing companies are also on a lookout for more advanced methods and techniques to protect their 3D printing automotive parts. Many researchers are also conducting various experiments to find out how to prevent different metals against rust and corrosion.

There are several factors that can cause rust and corrosion in metal tools and equipment. At times, metal tools and machinery can get corroded from excessive moisture and oxygen. Also, excessive amount of salt particles in water can also lead to corrosion of metals.

Different Types of Corrosion

There are several different types of corrosion. They may occur from excessive dust, oxygen, moisture or water in the environment. Some of the most common forms of corrosion are listed below.

1. Dissimilar metal or galvanic corrosion 

2. Stress cracking corrosion (SCC)

3. General corrosion

4. Localized corrosion

5. Caustic agent corrosion

6. Flow-Assisted Corrosion

7. Intergranular corrosion

8. De-Alloying

9. Fretting corrosion

10. High temperature corrosion

11. Crevice Corrosion

12. Pitting Corrosion

13. Uniform corrosion

Details of basic types of corrosion are given below:

1. Pitting Corrosion

Pitting corrosion is very hard to detect. Also, this type of corrosion can cause more severe damage to metal machinery and tools. In this type of corrosion, hundreds of tiny holes and openings are produced into the affected metal area. This type of corrosion can spread across the entire metal surface and keeps on growing that can lead to severe damage and malfunctioning of machinery.

2. Galvanic Corrosion

This type of corrosion takes place when two completely electrochemically dissimilar metals come into an electrical contact under an electrolytic corrosive environment.

3. Uniform Corrosion

Unlike galvanic and pitting corrosion, uniform corrosion does not cause much damage to metal machinery. It is one of the most simplest forms of corrosion where a metal surface is evenly attacked and corroded. The affected metal surfaces tend to lose their shine, smoothness and luster from this type of corrosion.

4. Crevice Corrosion

Crevice corrosion takes place between the gaps, crevices or joints of two metal surfaces. This type of corrosion usually occurs when the  ionic concentration of the two metal surfaces is not same.

5. Stress Cracking Corrosion (SCC)

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) occurs in the form of cracks on metal surfaces at high temperatures. The cracks in the metal surfaces keep on multiplying  due to constant tensile stress.

How to Protect Metal Surfaces Against Rust and Corrosion

Following are some of the most effective ways to protect metal surfaces against rust and corrosion.

1. Cathode Protection Against Corrosion

This is one of the most simplest methods for protecting metal surfaces against rust and corrosion. In this method, a metal surface is protected by connecting it with an electropositive metal surface.

2. Barrier Protection Against Corrosion

Under this method, a metal surface is protected from moisture and air through the method of electroplating.

3. Galvanizing

This method is mostly used for iron where it is covered with either zinc or aluminum to protect it against rust and corrosion.

Final word

In order to ensure smooth running of various tools and machinery, metal surfaces need to be protected against humidity, moisture, air and water. These elements in the atmosphere tend to create rust and corrosion on the metal surfaces of industrial and commercial machinery as well as automobile parts. Protecting metal surfaces from rust and corrosion is crucial to ensure smooth running of electrical equipment and improve the efficiency as well as the overall life of such electrical tools and equipment.